Last week we saw that PRINCE2 doesn’t really have much advice to offer the project manager stuck with delivering to a fixed date. I also gave you some advice from another expert, J LeRoy Ward at ESI. Surely some other project management experts have tackled this problem? I trawled my bookcase for what other people had written on the subject.
Stanley E. Portny, in Project Management for Dummies (don’t laugh, it’s actually pretty good), says that managing this way is ‘backing in’. Backing in is when you start at the end of the project and work your way backwards calculating task estimates until you reach today. So you automatically shorten task lengths when you realise you are out of time. That’s why it is not a good idea. He points out three major pitfalls of planning this way:
- “You may miss activities, because your focus is more on meeting a time constraint than ensuring you identify all required work.
- Your span time estimates are based on what you can allow activities to take, rather than what they’ll actually require.
- The order in which you propose to perform activities may not be the most effective one.” (p. 92)
Linda Kretz Zaval and Terri Wagner also talk about the practicalities of managing to fixed dates in their book, Project Manager Street Smarts: A Real World Guide to PMP Skills, and I picked out the bit about making the plan fit in my book review last year, long before I knew that this month would focus on fixed dates. They propose three strategies for reducing the project duration to give you a fighting chance of hitting those dates:
- Crash the project by reducing the duration of activities located on the critical path, focusing on working out the cheapest tasks to reduce and concentrating on them.
- Fast-track the project. This is doing tasks in parallel instead of doing them in series.
- Calculate the cost per day of crashing the project (which is called slope) – then maybe your stakeholders won’t be so keen on making you hurry along.
Meri Williams’ book, The Principles of Project Management, is another one I enjoyed. And it talks about dealing with fixed date projects, which it calls set deadlines. Backing in, fixed date, set deadlines, it’s all the same thing.
“First, work out how much trouble you’re in,” she writes. “Break down the deliverables, gather the estimates, and decide how much contingency you’d have liked to have. You work out that the realistic deadline for the Next Big Thing project is actually December 1st. But now what? How can you convince management that you need an extra six months in the project plan?
If you’re in a wonderful, supportive work environment, you may choose to tackle this issue head-on. Go and explain that the deadline is unachievable, that you simply can’t make it.”
Williams predicts that either management will replace you with someone who says they can deliver to their ridiculous timescale. Or management will offer you more cash and more people in a bid to get it all done on time.
“The most important point is to take the emotion out of the discussion. Get everyone to calm down and face reality, making it about what needs to be done, rather than the emotional reaction of a boss who’s being told she can’t have what she wants, and a team that’s being asked to achieve the impossible.”
And of course my book, Project Management in the Real World, includes a chapter on managing fixed date projects with more advice. Hopefully you are no longer seriously at a loss now as to where to start with your fixed date project. Enjoy – sometimes the challenge of hitting the date is part of the fun of project management.